Makah Air Force Station
Makah Air Force Station (1950-1988) - A Cold War Air Force Radar Station first established in 1951 near Neah Bay, Clallam County, Washington. First named Neah Bay Air Force Station on 1 Dec 1953 and renamed Makah Air Force Station on 28 Mar 1958 after the local Makah Indian Tribe. Initially assigned a Permanent ID of P-44, later a Sage ID of Z-44 and a JSS ID of J-80. Abandoned in 1988.
The main site was established on 15 Dec 1950 and became operational in January 1952 manned by the 758th AC&W Squadron. The new site assumed coverage from Lashup System site L-34 at Neah Bay. The station initially had both a Ground-Control Intercept (GCI) and early warning misssion. The early warning mission involved tracking and identifing all aircraft entering their airspace while the GCI mission involved guiding Air Force interceptors to any identified enemy aircraft. Controllers at the station vectored fighter aircraft at the correct course and speed to intercept enemy aircraft using voice commands via ground-to-air radio.
SAGE System Transition
The transition of the manual GCI system to the automated SAGE system began with the installation of the FST-2 coordinate data transmitter and search radar upgrades. The FST-2 equipment digitized the radar returns and transmitted the digital returns to the SAGE direction center. Under the SAGE System, interceptor aircraft were directed to their targets by the direction center computers and controllers, greatly reducing the need for local controllers and equipment at every radar station.
The FST-2 was a very large digital system using vacuum tube technology. Over 6900 vacuum tubes were used in each FST-2 requiring 21 air-conditioned cabinets, 40 tons of air conditioning, 43.5 kva of prime power and usually a large new addition to the operations building. The FST-2B modification added two more cabinets but with newer solid state (transistor) technology to process coded responses from aircraft transponders. The FST-2 was installed at Makah AFS in 1959 and its solid state replacement FYQ-47 was installed about 1975.
SAGE System Operation
The site began operation as a SAGE site in February 1960 initially feeding the McChord SAGE Direction Center DC-12. The search radar was upgraded to an FPS-7A. The height finder radar was upgraded to an FPS-90 and an FPS-26A height finder radar was installed. The FPS-7A was later upgraded to an FPS-107V1. A TPS-43E was temporarily installed at Makah AFS for three weeks when the FPS-107V1 search radar was replaced by the FPS-91A.
Makah AFS and the 758th were deactivated 15 Jun 1988 with the main radar site continuing as a joint use FAA/USAF JSS site J-80. The FAA/USAF joint site now operates the ARSR-4 3D radar on a small part of the original site as a minimally attended radar. The lower site areas were returned to the Makah Tribe.
The physical plant of the site was divided into an upper area on Bahokus Peak where the main site and the GATR Radio site were located and a lower site with the cantonment and housing areas. The main site housed the operations buildings, the radar towers, and the backup generators. A separate Ground to Air Transmitter/Receiver (GATR) radio site housed the radio equipment for directing aircraft intercepts.
The lower area housed the cantonment area with the enlisted barracks, the bachelor officer's quarters, the orderly room, the dining hall, the motor pool and other support buildings. Apart from the main site was a housing area for married personnel with 7 units for officer housing and 38 units for enlisted personnel. An adjacent area contained a 22 space trailer park.
The cantonment area and housing area were turned back to the Makah Tribe and are now administered by the Makah Tribal Council. Many of the AFS structures remain, repurposed for tribal uses. The main site on Bahokus Peak remains as a joint use USAF/FAA site with an ARSR-4 3D radar. The GATR Radio site now contains commercial radio gear.
Visited: 4 Sep 2015