Battery Livingston

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Battery Livingston (1902-1942) - Battery Livingston was a reinforced concrete, Endicott Period 12 inch coastal mortar battery on Fort Miley, San Francisco County, California. The battery was named in G.O. 194, 27 Dec 1904 after Col LaRhett Livingston (Cullum 1597), 3rd U.S. Artillery, who died March 26, 1903. Battery construction started 27 Nov 1899, was completed 1902 and transferred to the Coast Artillery for use 26 Sep 1902 at a cost of $ 174,050.89. General Order 20, 25 Jan 1906, named the C and D mortar pits Battery Springer after Capt. Anton Springer, 1st U.S. Infantry, who was killed in action near Lipa, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 10 Jun 1901. Mortar pits A and B retained the Battery Livingston name. Deactivated in 1943.

Battery Livingston, Mortar Pit A
Battery Livingston, Mortar Pit B

Endicott Period (1890-1910)

Part of the Harbor Defense of San Francisco.

Battery Livingston Data Booth

Originally built as an Endicott Period concrete coastal mortar battery with sixteen 12" M1890MI mortars mounted on M1896MI mortar carriages divided into four mortar pits (A-D) with four mortars in each pit (1-4).

Each mortar pit had a data booth at the rear that conveyed azimuth and elevation information to the gun crews and directed the firing. The data booth was connected to the plotting room via telephone. Between the mortar pits was a concrete magazine that stored the shells and powder. The magazine was protected with a 20' covering of earth. Shells and powder were wheeled from the magazine to the mortar loading platforms on shot carts.

Battery Livingston Armament (edit list)
Empl
No
Caliber
Type
Barrel
Length
Model Serial
No
Manufacturer Carriage Service
Dates
Notes
A1 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 153 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #300, Rarig 1902-1942 See note 1
A2 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 156 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #298, Rarig 1902-1918 See note 2
A3 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 140 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #234, Watertown 1902-1942 See note 1
A4 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 143 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #292, Rarig 1902-1918 See note 2
B1 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 154 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #238, Watertown 1902-1942 See note 1
B2 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 142 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #239, Watertown 1902-1918 See note 2
B3 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 161 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #235, Watertown 1902-1942 See note 1
B4 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 149 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #236, Watertown 1902-1918 See note 2
C1 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 164 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #290, Watertown 1902-1942 See note 1
C2 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 169 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #302, Rarig 1902-1918 See note 2
C3 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 166 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #301, Rarig 1902-1942 See note 1
C4 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 168 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #299, Rarig 1902-1918 See note 2
D1 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 163 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #232, Watertown 1902-1942 See note 1
D2 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 165 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #231, Watertown 1902-1918 See note 2
D3 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 167 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #233, Watertown 1902-1942 See note 1
D4 12" Mortar 141.125" M1890MI 95 Watervliet Mortar, M1896MI, #230, Watertown 1902-1918 See note 2
Source: RCW Form 1, 1 Mar 1920, 1 Sep 1923, RCB, 31 Dec 1903, 31 Dec 1909 Coast Defense Study Group, Berhow, Mark A. ed, American Seacoast Defenses: A Reference Guide, 2nd Edition, CDSG Press, McLean, VA, 2004, ISBN 0-9748167-0-1, pages 140-141, 215
Note 1: Guns and carriages ordered scrapped 19 Nov 1942 CDSG Gun Card Collection from NARA
Note 2: Guns transferred to Morgan 18 Jun 1918. Carriages ordered scrapped/reduced to parts 26 May 1920. CDSG Gun Card Collection from NARA
Battery Livingston Plan 1919


World War I (1917-1918)

The U.S. entry into World War I resulted in a widespread removal of large caliber coastal defense gun tubes for service in Europe. Many of the gun and mortar tubes removed were sent to arsenals for modification and mounting on mobile carriages, both wheeled and railroad. Most of the removed gun tubes never made it to Europe and were either remounted or remained at the arsenals until needed elsewhere.

On 3 May 1918 Fort Miley was directed to dismount four mortars each from Battery Livingston and Battery Springer and prepare them for shipment. On 18 Jul 1918 a status message indicated that all eight of the mortars had been transferred to service abroad. The gun cards for these mortars indicate that they were transferred 18 Jun 1918 to Morgan Engineering. None of these guns were actually sent abroad because the World War I drew to a close before they could be modified. The carriages for these mortars were removed from the mortar pits but remained at Fort Miley until the general disarmament in 1920 when they were scrapped or broken up for spare parts. In each case the two front mortars were removed from each pit to make more room for more efficient operations. This was a general pattern throughout the coastal artillery mortar batteries.

World War II (1941-1945)

It was clear that the 12" Endicott Period mortar batteries were obsolete even before World War II and, in the fall of 1942, when the first nationwide scrap drive of the war was organized, much of the obsolete hardware of the Endicott Period was scrapped.

Current Status

Part of the Golden Gate Recreation Area (GGNRA) administered by the National Park Service. No period guns or mounts in place.


Location: Fort Miley, San Francisco County, California

Maps & Images

Lat: 37.783104 Long: -122.501609

Sources:

Links:

Visited: 23 Aug 2009

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