Battery Cullum

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Battery Cullum (1898-1933) - Battery Cullum was a reinforced concrete, Endicott Period 10 inch coastal gun battery on Fort Pickens, Escambia County, Florida. The battery was named in G.O. 43, 4 Apr 1900, after Brigadier General George W. Cullum, U.S. Volunteers, a distinguished officer of the U.S. Civil War, who, by his munificence toward the United States Military Academy, endeared himself to all its graduates. Battery construction started in 1895, was completed in 1898 and transferred to the Coast Artillery for use in March and June 1898 at a cost of $ 188,920.24. Deactivated in 1933.

Battery Cullum Emplacement #2, Note the Wall for the New Battery Trueman Emplacement #2
Battery Cullum BC Station and Plotting Room Below
Battery Cullum-Sevier

Endicott Period (1890-1910)

Part of the Harbor Defense of Pensacola.

Originally built as an Endicott Period concrete coastal gun battery with four 10" M1888MII guns mounted on three M1894 Disappearing carriages and one M1896 Disappearing carriage. This was a two story battery with the guns located on the upper level and the magazines below. Shells were moved from the magazine level to the gun loading platform by Taylor-Raymond back delivery shell hoists. No powder hoists were provided. Electrical power was furnished by an emplacement power plant and commercial power.

The sand slopes of Battery Cullum were damaged in the hurricane of September 26-27, 1906. The slopes were restored and bermuda grass was planted to stabilize the sand.

A BC Station and plotting room was constructed in 1915 in back of and between gun emplacements 3 and 4. The BC Station and plotting room was accepted for service 20 Aug 1915 at a cost of $2,310.84.

The four emplacements of Battery Cullum remained a single battery until 1916 when it was administratively divided into two batteries. Emplacements 1 and 2 became Battery Sevier and emplacements 3 and 4 became emplacements 1 and 2 of Battery Cullum.

Battery Cullum Armament (edit list)
Empl
No
Caliber
Type
Barrel
Length
Model Serial
No
Manufacturer Carriage Service
Dates
Notes
Battery Cullum Until 1916
1 10" Rifle 367.25" M1888MII 25 Watervliet Disappearing, M1894, #6, Kilby 1898-1916 See note 1
2 10" Rifle 367.25" M1888MII 42 Watervliet Disappearing, M1894, #7, Kilby 1898-1916 See note 1
3 10" Rifle 367.25" M1888MII 44 Watervliet Disappearing, M1894, #8, Kilby 1898-1916 See note 1
4 10" Rifle 367.25" M1888MII 30 Watervliet Disappearing, M1896, #38, Bethlehem 1898-1916 See note 1
Battery Cullum 1916-1918
1 10" Rifle 367.25" M1888MII 44 Watervliet Disappearing, M1894, #8, Kilby 1916-1918 See note 1
2 10" Rifle 367.25" M1888MII 30 Watervliet Disappearing, M1896, #38, Bethlehem 1916-1918 See note 1
Battery Cullum 1921-1933
1 10" Rifle 367.25" M1888MII 48 Watervliet Disappearing, M1894, #8, Kilby 1921-1933 See note 2
2 10" Rifle 367.25" M1888MII 49 Watervliet Disappearing, M1896, #38, Bethlehem 1921-1933 See note 2
Source: RCW Form 1, 21 Jan 1929, RCB, 31 Dec 1904, 31 Dec 1909, CDSG, Berhow, Mark A. ed, American Seacoast Defenses: A Reference Guide, 2nd Edition, CDSG Press, McLean, VA, 2004, ISBN 0-9748167-0-1, pages 124-125
Note 1: CDSG Gun Card Collection from NARA
Note 2: Guns from Fort Stevens (1) one each from Battery Walker and Battery Lewis via Watervliet. CDSG Gun Card Collection from NARA
Battery Cullum Plan


World War I (1917-1918)

The U.S. entry into World War I resulted in a widespread removal of large caliber coastal defense gun tubes for service in Europe. Many of the gun and mortar tubes removed were sent to arsenals for modification and mounting on mobile carriages, both wheeled and railroad. Most of the removed gun tubes never made it to Europe and were either remounted or remained at the arsenals until needed elsewhere. The guns of Battery Cullum were not affected by the World War I redistribution or the following 1920 disarmament program but the battery was declared obsolete and deactivated in 1933.

World War II (1941-1945)

In 1942 the Battery Trueman was relocated from its original location into old Battery Cullum. The guns and carriages were moved into two new emplacements built between the old emplacements of Battery Cullum. The magazines were rehabilitated. This construction began in March 1942, was completed in December 1942 and transferred for service in May 1944 at a cost of $ 20,330.00. Included in the rehabilitation was a new stair system and an ammunition hoist.

Current Status

No period guns or mounts in place. This battery was fenced off and no access to the battery structure was available.


Location: Fort Pickens, Escambia County, Florida

Maps & Images

Lat: 30.326823 Long: -87.293651

Sources:

  • Historic Structure Report and Resource Study, Pensacola Harbor Defense Project 1890-1947, Florida Unit, National Park service, March 1982
  • U.S.Army, Supplement to the Harbor Defense Project of Pensacola, (HDPEN-AN-45), 1 Jul 1945, CDSG

Links:

Visited: 25 Apr 2013, 16 Dec 2009



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