Fort Macaulay (1878-1956) - A Canadian coastal defense fortification first established in 1878 as a part of "Victoria-Esquimalt Fortress". Located on Macaulay Point, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Abandoned in 1956. Also known as Macaulay Battery and Macaulay Point Battery.
Part of the Harbor Defense of Victoria and Esquimalt Harbors.
The Canadian Harbors at Victoria and Esquimalt were protected by five separate gun batteries with emplaced naval guns starting in 1878. In 1893 an agreement with Great Britain established for a common defense of both harbors. The result of this agreement was the construction of two forts, Fort Rodd Hill on west side of the entrance to Esquimalt Harbor and Fort Macaulay on the east side of Esquimalt Harbor at the entrance to Victoria Harbor, the work being undertaken by a detachment of twenty Sappers from the 18th (Fortress) Company of Royal Engineers sent from Halifax, whose job was to demolish the old earth and wood batteries, then lay out and direct the building of the new concrete and earth forts.
Fort Macaulay was the site of one of the five existing batteries and was armed with three, 7" rifled muzzle loaded (RML) guns. Fort Rodd Hill was a new fort built on a rock bluff at the harbor entrance. Both forts were to mount three, 6" disappearing breech loaded (BL) coastal defense guns in modern reinforced concrete gun emplacements, the work being performed by the Marine Artillery.
This plan coincided with the construction of similar but more extensive American fortifications during the Endicott Period across the Straits of San Juan De Fuca at Fort Worden, Fort Casey (1) and Fort Flagler for the Harbor Defense of Puget Sound.
The current Fort Macaulay complex was constructed between 1894-1897 and came to include three reinforced concrete gun emplacements, ammunition stores and a concrete BC post linked by tunnel to a guardhouse and keep. Three 6" MK6 guns on MK4 (20 degree) disappearing carriages were emplaced. The #2 and #3 guns were removed in 1924 and replaced with two 6" QF MK2 guns on Navy mounts. All existing guns and mounts removed in 1938. The #1 and #3 emplacements were then each armed with one 6" MK7 gun on a MK2 mount (15 degree). Emplacement #2 was converted into an artillery store. These guns and mounts remained in place until about 1948.
Part of Macaulay Point City Park, Esquimalt, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Open to the public. No period guns or carriages in place.
Visited: 5 Jun 2014, 22 Jun 2009