Fort George (9)
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Fort George (9) (1779-1814) - A British colonial fort established in 1772 by British General John Campbell in present day Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida. Besieged and taken in 1781 by the Spanish under Bernardo de Galvez. Renamed Fort San Miguel (2) and rebuilt by the Spanish in 1783. Fell into ruin after being bombarded by General Andrew Jackson in 1814 during the War of 1812. Abandoned in 1814. Also known as Fort St. Michael.
Revolutionary War (1772-1783)
The British were in control of Pensacola during the first part of of the Revolutionary War and in 1772 built Fort George at the top of present day Palafox Hill. By 1871 Fort George was supplemented with two outlying redoubts, Queen Ann's Redoubt and the Prince of Wales Redoubt.
Fort George itself evolved into a large complex anchored at one end by a square parade surrounded by earthworks with four demi-bastions and a dry moat. A long earthworks extended southwest some 600 feet. The fort walls mounted some 20 cannons.
The Fort George complex was attacked by Spanish General Bernardo de Galvez and besieged from 24 Apr 1781 to 8 May 1781. On the 8th of May a Spanish howitzer shell exploded in a powder magazine of the Queen Ann's Redoubt destroying the redoubt and killing many of the British troops. The Spanish occupied the destroyed redoubt and trained their cannons on the fort and the remaining redoubt at short range. This action made the British positions untenable and the British Garrison surrendered that day. British General John Campbell signed the formal capitulation documents the next day, 9 May 1781. With the capture of Pensacola, Bernardo de Galvez controlled of all the major ports on the gulf coast and the British were denied access to the American Colonies from the gulf for the remainder of the Revolutionary War.
War of 1812 (1812-1814)
The post was bombarded by U.S. General Andrew Jackson in his 1814 attack on Spanish West Florida. In 1818 General Jackson again invaded Pensacola occupying the remaining forts in an effort to stop hostile Florida Indians from attacking U.S. interests. The fort was renamed Fort St. Michael by the Americans. He also removed the Spanish garrison from Pensacola to Cuba in 1818 and returned in 1821 to accept Spanish West Florida from the last Spanish Governor. General Jackson then became the first U.S. military governor of the Florida territory in 1821.
Part of Fort George City Park in Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida. A partial reconstruction displays a short section of wall with two cannons mounted above.
Location: Fort George City Park, Escambia County, Florida.
Maps & Images
Lat: 30.418595 Long: -87.216963
- Roberts, Robert B., Encyclopedia of Historic Forts: The Military, Pioneer, and Trading Posts of the United States, Macmillan, New York, 1988, 10th printing, ISBN 0-02-926880-X, page 170
Visited: 3 Jan 2012
Fort George (9) Picture Gallery
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