Ramore Air Station
Ramore Air Station (1953-1974) - A Cold War Canadian Pinetree Line Radar Station established in 1953 during the Korean War. Initially operated by USAF personnel. Located near the town of Ramore in Ontario, Canada. Initially assigned a Permanent ID of C-10 and later a Sage ID of C-10. Turned over to the RCAF on 2 Jan 1962 and renamed RCAF Station Ramore. With the Canadian Forces' unification on 10 Aug 1967, the name changed to CFS Ramore. Closed in 1974.
Constructed between 1950 and 1953 and became operational on 1 Oct 1953 as Ramore Air Station manned by the 912th Aircraft Control & Warning (AC&W) Squadron.
Initial equipment included the FPS-3 search radar a TPS-502 Height finder radar and a FPS-502 Back-Up Search radar. At the USAF turnover of the site to the RCAF on 1 Jan 1962, the site was still equipped with an FPS-3C search radar but did have one of the more modern FPS-6B height-finders in operation. In 1962 as the RCAF took over, major changes took place in the site configuration. On 19 Mar 1962, the new remote GATR radio site was accepted. On 4 Apr 1962, the FST-2 Coordinate Data Transmitter was accepted from the Burroughs contractor signaling the start of SAGE System testing. On 7 Dec 1962, the AFTO-88 acceptance forms were signed for the new FPS-26A height-finder. All of these systems and associated construction had been planned and programmed under USAF occupancy. A new FPS-27 search radar had also been programmed but delays in the construction of the building and problems with the new equipment slipped the acceptance of that facility and it did not go operational until 19 Mar 1964.
Manual System Operation
On 21 Dec 1952, the 912th AC&W Squadron moved to Ramore Air Station and was assigned to the 30th Air Division (Defense) (30th ADD) Headquartered at [[Willow Run Air Force Station), Michigan. The pre-NORAD command structure saw Ramore Air Station assigned to the 30th AD in the USAF chain of command but for control of aircraft over Canadian airspace the site and the 912th operated under the control of the No. 3 Air Defence Control Centre (3 ADCC), located at RCAF Station Edgar. On 1 Jan 1958 the operational role of the 912th was officially changed from that of an early warning surveillance station to a GCI station with limited control capabilities, but with no scramble prerogative or Identification function. On 24 Jan 1958, the 912th Squadron was given a scramble prerogative from 3 ADCC. On 13 Jun 1958, they were assigned the ID function on a trial basis and after one month on a permanent basis.
This change of responsibility required significant physical changes to the operations room to make it conform to the ADC standard for GCI sites. Scopes were added and existing ones were all recabled. The communications and radio circuitry was all reworked during the 15 Apr 1958 to 9 May 1958 time frame and the site reverted to an early warning configuration with no air/ground radio communication during that period.
the 912th shifted to the Sault Sainte Marie Air Defense Sector (SSMADS) and the new K.I. Sawyer SAGE Direction Center DC-14 established at Marquette, Michigan. Operations continued in the manual mode until the SAGE annex at Ramore Air Station was completed and the new equipment was installed and checked out.
SAGE System Transition
The transition of the manual GCI system to the automated SAGE system began with the installation of the FST-2 coordinate data transmitter and search radar upgrades. The FST-2 equipment digitized the radar returns and transmitted the digital returns to the SAGE direction center. Under the SAGE System, interceptor aircraft were directed to their targets by the direction center computers and controllers, greatly reducing the need for local controllers and equipment at every radar station.
The FST-2 was a very large digital system using vacuum tube technology. Over 6900 vacuum tubes were used in each FST-2 requiring 21 air-conditioned cabinets, 40 tons of air conditioning, 43.5 kva of prime power, and usually a large new addition to the operations building. The FST-2B modification added two more cabinets but with newer solid-state (transistor) technology to process coded responses from aircraft transponders.
SAGE System Operation
The site began operation as a SAGE site on 1 Oct 1963 initially feeding the K.I. Sawyer SAGE Direction Center DC-14. On 1 May 1964, the squadron designation was changed from the 35 AC&W Squadron to the 35 Radar Squadron (SAGE) indicating the new SAGE System role.
Ramore Air Station and the 912th were deactivated in 1974.
Note: Reported dates overlap and may be incorrect or reflect periods of intermittant temporary command.