Battery Pensacola

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Battery Pensacola (1898-1934) - Battery Pensacola was a reinforced concrete, Endicott Period 12 inch coastal gun battery on Fort Pickens, Escambia County, Florida. The battery was named in G.O. 73, 29 May 1900, after the City of Pensacola. Battery construction started in 1897, was completed in 1898, and transferred to the Coast Artillery for use on 30 Jun 1898 at a cost of $128,707.04. The battery was declared obsolete and no longer required in 1933.

Battery Pensacola Power Room.
Battery Pensacola Lower Level.
Battery Pensacola in 2021

Endicott Period (1890-1910)

Part of the Harbor Defense of Pensacola.

Battery Pensacola Shell Hoist Remains
Battery Pensacola B.C. Station

Originally built as an Endicott Period concrete coastal gun battery with two 12" M1895 guns mounted on disappearing M1897 carriages. This was a two-story battery built into old Fort Pickens with the guns on the upper level and the magazines and support rooms on the lower level. Taylor-Raymond back delivery shell hoists were provided to move the heavy 12" shells from the lower level to the loading level. Electrical power was furnished by a power plant in the battery with two 25 KW gasoline engine generator sets.

In 1908 a B.C. Station was added on the top, center of Battery Pensacola at a cost of $ 850.00.

Battery Pensacola Gun Emplacement #1
Battery Pensacola Gun Emplacement #2

Battery Pensacola Armament (edit list)
Model Serial
Manufacturer Carriage Service
1 12" Rifle 442.56" M1895 7 Watervliet Disappearing, M1897, #3, Robert Poole 1898-1933 See note 1
2 12" Rifle 442.56" M1895 6 Watervliet Disappearing, M1897, #4, Robert Poole 1898-1933 See note 1
Source: RCW Form 1, 30 Jun 1898, Coast Defense Study Group, Berhow, Mark A. ed, American Seacoast Defenses: A Reference Guide, 2nd Edition, CDSG Press, McLean, VA, 2004, ISBN 0-9748167-0-1, pages 148-149, 212
Note 1: Battery declared obsolete and no longer required 16 Jun 1933. Guns transferred to Watervliet 26 Oct 1934, carriages scrapped 26 Oct 1942. CDSG Gun Card Collection from NARA
Battery Pensacola Plan

World War I (1917-1918)

The U.S. entry into World War I resulted in a widespread removal of large caliber coastal defense gun tubes for service in Europe. Many of the gun and mortar tubes removed were sent to arsenals for modification and mounting on mobile carriages, both wheeled and railroad. Most of the removed gun tubes never made it to Europe and were either remounted or remained at the arsenals until needed elsewhere. The two 12" guns of Battery Pensacola were not affected by the World War I redistribution but the battery was declared obsolete and no longer required on 16 Jun 1933. Both guns were transferred back to the Watervliet Arsenal on 25 Oct 1934 and not returned. The carriages remained in place until they were ordered scrapped on 26 Oct 1942.

Current Status

No period guns or mounts in place.

Location: On the parade ground of Fort Pickens,
Santa Rosa Island, Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida.

Maps & Images

Lat: 30.327064 Long: -87.290679

  • Multi Maps from ACME
  • Maps from Bing
  • Maps from Google
  • Elevation: 32.08'

GPS Locations:


  • Roberts, Robert B., Encyclopedia of Historic Forts: The Military, Pioneer, and Trading Posts of the United States, Macmillan, New York, 1988, 10th printing, ISBN 0-02-926880-X, page 196-197
  • Historic Structure Report and Resource Study, Pensacola Harbor Defense Project 1890-1947, Florida Unit, National Park service, March 1982
  • De Quesada, Alejandro M., A History of Florida Forts: Florida's Lonely Outposts, SC : History Press, Charleston, 2006, ISBN 1596291044, page 192


Visited: 8 Oct 2021, Dec 2011, 15 Dec 2009

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