Battery Croghan

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Battery Croghan (1900-1946) - Battery Croghan was a reinforced concrete, Endicott Period 3 inch coastal gun battery on Fort San Jacinto, Galveston County, Texas. The battery was named in G.O. 194, 27 Dec 1904, after Colonel George Croghan, Inspector General U.S. Army, who died 8 Jan 1849. Battery construction started 12 Jul 1899, was completed Jan 1900 and transferred to the Coast Artillery for use 31 Mar 1900 at a cost of $ 32,988.75. The 1900 Galveston hurricane damaged the battery before it could be armed and it was repaired, armed and re-transferred for use 21 Aug 1911. Deactivated in 1946.

Battery Croghan
Battery Croghan CRF Platform

Endicott Period (1890-1910)

Part of the Harbor Defense of Galveston. The major mission of Battery Croghan was the protection of the shipping channel mine fields.

Originally built as an Endicott Period concrete coastal gun battery slated for two 15 pounder 3" Driggs-Seabury M1898 rapid fire guns mounted on masking parapet carriages. The battery was completed and accepted early in 1900 before the 1900 Galveston hurricane but not armed. The battery structure survived the hurricane but was left exposed on its pilings. The battery was refurbished and the ramparts rebuilt. When the time came to arm the battery, the more modern rapid fire 3" M1903 guns mounted on M1903 pedestal mounts were emplaced. The carriages were transferred 9 Dec 1907 and the guns were mounted sometime before 1 Jan 1910.

A stand alone mine casement that was destroyed during the 1900 Galveston hurricane was relocated and reconstructed on the right rear traverse of Battery Croghan. A exposed cable tunnel leads from the mine casement room of Battery Croghan to the water's edge.

Battery Croghan Armament (edit list)
Empl
No
Caliber
Type
Barrel
Length
Model Serial
No
Manufacturer Carriage Service
Dates
Notes
1 3" Rifle 170" M1903 6 Watervliet Pedestal, M1903, #29, A. & B. M. 1900-1945 See note 1
2 3" Rifle 170" M1903 48 Watervliet Pedestal, M1903, #30, A. & B. M. 1900-1945 See note 1
Source: RCW Form 1, Aug 1921, Coast Defense Study Group, Berhow, Mark A. ed, American Seacoast Defenses: A Reference Guide, 2nd Edition, CDSG Press, McLean, VA, 2004, ISBN 0-9748167-0-1, pages 74, 213
Note 1: Carriages transferred 9 Dec 1907. Guns and carriages declared obsolete 18 Oct 1945 and processed for salvage 27 May 1946. CDSG Gun Card Collection from NARA
Battery Croghan Plan


World War I (1917-1918)

The U.S. entry into World War I resulted in a widespread removal of large caliber coastal defense gun tubes for service in Europe. Many of the gun and mortar tubes removed were sent to arsenals for modification and mounting on mobile carriages, both wheeled and railroad. Most of the removed gun tubes never made it to Europe and were either remounted or remained at the arsenals until needed elsewhere. Battery Croghan was not impacted by the World War I transfers.

World War II (1941-1945)

[Image:Fort San Jacinto Battery Croghan Coverage.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Battery Croghan WWII Coverage]] Battery Croghan served throughout World War II but after the end of the war all the batteries were placed in an inactive status. The guns and carriages were declared obsolete (18 Oct 1945) and were processed for salvage 27 May 1946.

World War II Ammunition Allocation for Battery Croghan
Projectile
Weight
Projectile
Type
Total Rounds In Battery In Reserve
15 lb High Explosive 600 Rounds 400 Rounds 200 Rounds


Current Status

Accessible from the end of Seawall Avenue. No period guns or mounts in place.


Location: Fort San Jacinto, Galveston County, Texas

Maps & Images

Lat: 29.3362413 Long: -94.7568092

Sources:

  • U.S.Army, Supplement to the Harbor Defense Project of Galveston, (HD-G-ANN-45), 15 Mar 1944, CDSG

Links:

Visited: 12 Nov 2009

Battery Croghan Picture Gallery

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