Ute Black Hawk War
Ute Black Hawk War (1865-1872) - The Ute Black Hawk War resulted in over 150 different attacks, raids, skirmishes, murders, and massacres in southern Utah and surrounding areas. Led by Ute Chief Black Hawk, the Utes and several different bands of hostile Indians including Paiute, Navajo, Apache attacked mostly Mormon settlers and settlements from mountain camps.
Twenty-seven settlements were evacuated and two entire counties and portions of seven others were temporarily abandoned between April 1865 and October 1872. Many of the remaining settlements and town were fortified. Some seventy settlers were slain and many others wounded.
On 1 Aug 1866, U.S. Indian Superintendent Colonel Franklin H. Head obtained a promise of peace from Chief Black Hawk and on 19 Aug 1868 they assembled a peace parley at Fort Ephraim. A treaty was signed with sub-chieftains and later signed by U.S. President Andrew Johnson. Chief Black Hawk continued to help arrange peace parleys until he died on 26 Sep 1870 of tuberculosis.
Peace was finally obtained in 1872 with the intervention of regular U.S. Army troops to keep the Utes on the Uintah Reservation. The war to this point had been fought by settlers and Utah militia.