At the close of the French & Indian War France ceded parts of Louisiana to Spain in the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762). The remainder of French claimed territory was ceded to Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris (1763).
Spain neglected the New Orleans defenses until 1792 when a plan was approved by the Spanish Governor François Louis Hector, Baron de Carondelet to place five forts linked by embankments around the city. Again, the Place d'Armes was to be open to the river. The five forts were: Fort St. Jean, Fort St. Ferdinand, Fort Bourgogne, Fort San Luis and the largest, Fort San Carlos. The forts were five sided, built of brick and connected by a palisade. The two largest forts were placed at the river's edge and the three others were place at the back of the city. Each fort was designed with defenses on the inward side to counter any citizen or slave uprising from within the city.