Fort Frederick (3)
Fort Frederick (3) (1812-1870) - A War of 1812 fortification established on the site of previous fortifications in 1812 on Point Frederick in Kingston Harbor, Ontario, Canada. Named for General Sir Frederick Haldimand, Governor of Quebec (1778-1786). Abandoned as a fortification in 1870.
The original Fort Frederick was built on Point Frederick in the winter of 1812-1813 to counter a threat from American warships in Lake Ontario. Point Frederick is at a strategic location where the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario meet at the entrance to Kingston Harbor. Construction began in conjunction with an exchange of gunfire between a gun battery on Point Frederick and the U.S. Brig Oneida, on 10 November 1812. The fortification consisted of earthworks surrounding a 40' square blockhouse. A portion of the blockhouse foundation is currently exposed in front of the later built Martello tower.
The boundary dispute with the United States over Oregon in the 1840s again raised the threat of war between the U.S. and Canada. In 1846 the remains of the old blockhouse were demolished and a three-story Martello Tower was built and the earthworks strengthened. The Fort Frederick Tower was the largest of six Martello towers built to defend the Kingston Harbor.
The six Martello towers were (West to East):
The advent of the rifled cannon during the U.S. Civil War made the masonry Martello towers obsolete and ineffective as defensive structures. The towers continued in use as barracks and for other support functions until the departure of British troops in 1870 after Canadian Confederation.
On the grounds of the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The later works remain, including the Fort Frederick Tower and several cannons mounted in the tower and on the earthworks. The Fort Frederick Tower houses the Royal Military College Museum and has excellent collections of artifacts and armament. Open to the public during summer months, normally public access is permitted.
Visited: 29 Jul 2012